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Element % Min % Max ferro-carbonio1
The Iron-Carbon diaphragm
C (Carbon)  2,9 3,65 
Si (Silice)  1,8  2,9
Mn (Manganese)  0,4  0,7
S (Sulphur)  0  0,10
P (Phosphorus)  0  0,30
Others  Traces
Fe (Iron)  Residual at 100%
NB: Data may differ according to the various foundries
Pig iron
(common name)
Hardness
HB (30)
Tensile
Strength

Rm N/mm2
Yield
load

Rp 0,2
Elong.
A%
Structure Graphite
 GJL150 (G15) 140-190 150 1-3 Ferrite Lamellar
 GJL200 (G20) 150-210 200 1-3 Ferrite-pearlite Lamellar
 GJL250 (G25) 170-240 250 1-3 Pearlite Lamellar
 GJL300 (G30) 190-240 300 1-3 Pearlite Lamellar
 GJS400 (GS400) 140-200 400 240 8-18 Ferrite Spheroidal

The above details are provided as plain examples as they can only be measured on standard test pieces cast in auto mode on a die-cast system. The actual values for any specific cast strongly depend on the thickness of the element in question and the morphology of the cast (in fact these two aspects join force to determine the cooling curves and therefore the mechanical properties as a whole).
Below is an example showing how the tensile strength varies in relation to the different thicknesses.

GREY PIG IRON CASTS UNI EN 1561

Designation
of materials
Wall
thickness
Determinating
[mm]
Required
Rm tensile
resistance (On sample)
[N/mm2]
Required
tensile resistance
Rm (On sample)
[N/mm2]
Foreseen
Rm tensile
resistance (On sample)
[N/mm2]
EN-GJL-150 5
10
20
40
80
from 150 to 250

120
110
100
155
130
110
95
80
EN-GJL-200 5
10
20
40
80
from 200 to 300

170
150
140
205
180
155
130
115
EN-GJL-250 5
10
20
40
80
from 250 to 350

210
190
170
250
225
195
170
155
EN-GJL-300 10
20
40
80
from 250 to 350
250
220
210
270
240
210
195
Grey pig iron microstructure
ghisa1
Propagation of cracks inside grey pig iron.
The crack forms in the graphite

(present in the form of laminar) and then propagates.
Spheroidal pig iron microstructure
ghisa2
Propagation of cracks inside the spheroidal pig iron.
The crack forms in the graphite

(present in the form of spheroids) and then propagates.

SPHEROIDAL PIG IRON CASTS UNI EN 1563

Type of pig iron
Tensile resistance
Unit load of
deviance of proportionality 0,2%
Elongation
Brinell Hardness
Designation
of the material
Rm
[N/mm2] min
Rp0,2
[N/mm2] min
A% min HB
EN-GJS-400-18
400 250 18 from 130 to 175
EN-GJS-400-15 400 250 15 from 135 to 180
EN-GJS-450-10 450 310 10 from 160 to 210
EN-GJS-500-7 500 320 7 from 170 to 230
EN-GJS-600-3 600 370 3 from 190 to 270